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To develop calibration curves for the NIRS system, reference samples are analyzed by wet chemistry. These reference samples are from a wide range of locations, different stages of plant maturity and environmental conditions. The accuracy of NIRS predictions depends on the calibration curves developed from the reference samples. NIRS results for protein, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of forages are used widely in North America for ration-balancing purposes.

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Lowering the neck rail and placing it closer to the curb helps keep the stall clean without affecting lying times. However, installing the neck rail in this way will increase the time the cows spend standing on the concrete flooring outside of the stall. Although we typically think about the free stall as a place for cows to lie down, the stall is also used for standing, and the less time cows spend standing on concrete, the lower the risk of hoof injuries. Higher neck rails placed further from the curb allow cows to use the free stall as a relatively dry, non-concrete standing surface. Thus neck rail placement involves a trade off between allowing cows access to a more comfortable standing surface and increased stall maintenance.


The climatic requirements described above are only for maintaining live fruit-bearing Also important is climate in the growing season which is the most influential factor in determining fruit quality for wine making. The distribution of GDD over the season, and daily maximum and minimum temperatures especially during the fruit maturation period (post-veraison), will determine the composition of the fruit and whether the wine will be bad, ordinary or rich and complex. Climate makes wine.

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Fenugreek is an annual legume presently grown as a dryland crop for it=s seed. Fenugreek seed is used as a condiment, flavouring agent and for pharmaceutical purposes. In the year it s seeded, fenugreek produces almost as much forage as a mature stand of alfalfa. The crop yields 8 to 9 tons of dry matter per acre on dryland and twice that under irrigation. In collaboration with animal nutritionists we have found that fenugreek forage is very similar in quality to alfalfa, with crude protein levels around 68 to 75 percent. In preliminary grazing trials fenugreek did not cause bloat in ruminants.

One of the early challenges was trying to achieve product and packaging consistency. EPAC now offers its members standard boxes with the auction’s logo, and holds grower education sessions on harvesting, washing and packing techniques early each season.

Magnesium, classified as a macronutrient, is part of the chlorophyll molecule (the only mineral in it) and also is involved in enzyme activation.

Gray notes the public is becoming increasingly familiar with wine styles, and sub-appellations give people more information to find the style they are looking for. If they know about the growing areas of BC, it may help them to choose a wine they prefer.

Bodnar acknowledges that the current wave of people interested in the farming lifestyle could be compared to the back-to-the-land movement of the '65s and '75s, but feels that today's converts are much more prepared. "There's a realistic understanding that farming is a business and you have to be able to support yourself," he says. "You're not just going to find a patch of land somewhere and set up shop and do subsistence farming." And although we're also just scratching the surface, those with the knowledge are recognizing the need to train new farmers so that they don't fail.

Project Summary : This project will assist in the development of on-farm adaptations focused on producing high quality forage under a variety of conditions. Through the development of a weather station network within the production area, the evaluation of production techniques using on-farm trials, and the creation of a manual for conducting on-farm trials, this project seeks to increase the information and management options available to producers as well as provide for the long-term ability to respond to changes in growing conditions. This project will also result in weather information from currently under-represented geographies being made available to those involved in climate change adaptation.

Although sole lesions were found on every farm, some cows were more likely than others to have lesions. In particular, cows were more likely to have lesions if they had a low body condition score. Cows early in their first lactation were also at greater risk for lesions, as were older cows in mid to late lactation.

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